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Sayı 2

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Translated by: Özgürcan Yazkurt
Art is a phenomenon which has existed throughout the entire human history. The evolutions experienced by humanity have influenced life styles, views of life, types and views of art, and through each period and community art has emerged in different forms.

Today, affective and cognitive influence of art is more determinative. According to Thomas Munro, who gives the best definition for this concept, 'Art is the ability of creating stimuli in order to create satisfactory and esthetic experiences'. Art deals with beauty. Beauty is a relative concept. Even if it is ugly, painful and disgusting, anything which sustains a consistent integrity within itself is esthetically beautiful.

Objective and subjective approaches explain art in different ways. In an objective approach art is created by social influences, whereas it is created by a mere individualism in a subjective approach.

According to Kant, the aim of art is nothing but itself. Its only aim is itself. Fine art can only be created by a genius.

According to Hegel, the beauty in art is exalted so as to be more than the beauty in nature. Art is a product of human intelligence. It should find an aim other than the imitation of nature.

According to Marks, innovative action is a process of interaction between human and the nature. This carries a social character. Art is a phenomenon that humanizes life. Arts may develop in the attempt to reach the investigative, innovative, multidimensional and universal human being.

B. Croce stresses expression instead of beauty. Art is a combination of perception and expression. It is an individual and theoretical activity. 'Nature can find beauty through the interpretation of the artist. It is the interpretation of artisan that makes the nature beautiful.'

As a result, art is a field where the reaction of a genius against the existence takes a concrete form with a consistent integrity. As the artist is ahead of his era with his intelligence and perception, only few can understand real art. Effort is needed to appreciate real art.

Doğan, Mehmet. 'Esthetic in 100 Questions', Gerçek Kitabevi, İstanbul, 1975
Sena, Cemil. 'Philosophy of Esthetic Art and Beauty', Remzi Kitabevi, İstanbul, 1972
Sözen, Metin; Tanyeli, Uğur. 'Dictionary of Arts Terms and Concepts', Remzi Kitabevi, İstanbul, 1986
Timuçin, Afşar. 'Esthetic', 2nd Edition, BDS Yayınları, 1993


Criticism is evaluating an existing situation by objectively examining its positive and negative sides and expressing this in written or spoken form. Criticism is the primary credential for development. The right can only be achieved through criticizing the wrong. Criticizing and admitting criticism are the behaviors of a civilized human being, nevertheless, it is essential that criticism be made respectfully and within good-manners and that it be received with tolerance. In this regard, self-criticism is also essential. Self-development is possible through self-criticism.

Constructive and critical manners and behaviors are acquired and developed through education. Criticism, which should be included in all lectures and activities in education, should also be actively in art classes.

Criticism in art education is utilized discovering how much a study, a work, a painting reaches its specified goals, and in this manner, criticism is a method of evaluating education.

In arts lectures there is an effort to create an esthetic product. These products are criticized at different stages throughout the work in order to stimulate and lead the student, however the actual criticism comes in the end. For example, in arts class, all pictures are taped on the board, criteria are specified and according to these criteria the pictures are examined and evaluated. One by one, each student talks about both his and other pictures, first positively and then negatively, but with a respectful and objective narration. Finally, considering all opinions, the teacher makes an overall evaluation.

Educational criticism improves care and the ability to observe, think and explain thoughts, provides a clearer understanding of the subject, develops experience for further lectures and helps students in developing a constructive, critical and tolerant character.

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